Judo (“gentle way”) is generally categorized as a modern martial art, which has since evolved into a combat and Olympic sport. The sport was originally created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano as a physical, mental, and moral pedagogy in Japan.
The Art of Judo Episode 1 – YouTube
Judo’s most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or take down an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defences are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori). A judo practitioner is called a judoka.
The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (traditional schools). Judo also spawned a number of derivative martial arts across the world, such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Krav Maga and Sambo.